HjemGrupperSnakUdforskZeitgeist
Søg På Websted
På dette site bruger vi cookies til at levere vores ydelser, forbedre performance, til analyseformål, og (hvis brugeren ikke er logget ind) til reklamer. Ved at bruge LibraryThing anerkender du at have læst og forstået vores vilkår og betingelser inklusive vores politik for håndtering af brugeroplysninger. Din brug af dette site og dets ydelser er underlagt disse vilkår og betingelser.
Hide this

Resultater fra Google Bøger

Klik på en miniature for at gå til Google Books

Indlæser...

Mistress of the Elgin Marbles: A Biography of Mary Nisbet, Countess of…

af Susan Nagel

MedlemmerAnmeldelserPopularitetGennemsnitlig vurderingOmtaler
2291093,253 (3.59)18
Filled with romance, danger, and scandal, Mistress of the Elgin Marbles is the intriguing story of Mary Nisbet, the Countess of Elgin -- one of the most influential women of the Romantic era whose exploits enriched world culture immeasurably. The richest heiress in Scotland and the wife of accomplished diplomat Thomas Bruce, the 7th Earl of Elgin, she traveled to Turkey when Elgin was appointed the Ambassador Extraordinaire to the Ottoman Empire -- a journey that would change history. Interweaving extensive details gleaned from primary sources and excerpts from the countess's own letters, Susan Nagel draws a vivid portrait of this formidable woman who helped bring the smallpox vaccine to the Middle East, financed the removal and safe passage to England of classical marbles from the Parthenon, and struck a deal with Napoleon that no politician could have accomplished. Yet, as Nagel shows, those achievements were overshadowed by scandal when Mary's passionate affair with her husband's best friend flamed into the most lurid and salacious divorce trial in London's history. Lively and informative, this is an engrossing story of an astonishing woman who both defined and shaped an era.… (mere)
Ingen
Indlæser...

Bliv medlem af LibraryThing for at finde ud af, om du vil kunne lide denne bog.

Der er ingen diskussionstråde på Snak om denne bog.

» Se også 18 omtaler

Engelsk (9)  Hollandsk (1)  Alle sprog (10)
Viser 1-5 af 10 (næste | vis alle)
A little disappointing in that it was somewhat slanted in Mary's favor and didn't discuss the antiquities themselves as much as I had hoped. However, I learned a lot and am overall glad I read the book, so around a 3.5.

To start with, if it hadn’t been for the mention of the Elgin Marbles in the title, I probably wouldn’t have added this to my reading list or sought it out. Unfortunately, there wasn’t nearly as much about the Elgin Marbles themselves as I had hoped, although an appendix reproducing a letter to Mary Nisbet describing the progress of the Acropolis excavations was included. That doesn’t mean I didn’t like the book, and it does include some discussion of the Elgin Marbles, but if you’re more interested in art history go elsewhere.

Mary Nisbet started life as one of the richest heiresses in Scotland and married Thomas Bruce, the Seventh Earl of Elgin and Eleventh Earl of Kincardine. When Elgin was appointed ambassador extraordinaire to the Ottoman Empire, Mary accompanied him to Turkey. Along the way, they began collecting amazing antiquities, including the Gymnasiarch’s Throne (where the judge of the original Olympic games sat). While she was in Constantinople, the sultan became besotted with her, and she was the only Western women invited into Topkapi Palace and the Seraglio. She was also one of the few to meet the Valida Sultana, the sultan’s mother and the power behind the throne.

In addition, Mary helped introduce the smallpox vaccine to the Middle East. She lived at the same time Edward Jenner perfected the smallpox vaccine, and her mother-in-law knew Edward Jenner’s father. Because of this relationship, she was easily able to obtain the vaccine and had her young son and then her entire household vaccinated. This was important because smallpox was epidemic in Constantinople. Because smallpox was epidemic in Constantinople, she saw how many Turkish children in the city suffered and was so moved that she arranged to import large quantities of the vaccine to inoculate them as well. After early successes, she expanded her efforts and ultimately shipped smallpox vaccines to Baghdad, the Persian Gulf, and even Bombay.

On one of their few vacations, they visited Greece, where Elgin had already sent artists to make sketches of the art and plaster casts of the sculptures. On this trip, which took place before the recovery of the Elgin Marbles, he received permission to remove antiquities from Mycenae, Corinth, and Olympus. Using her influence with the sultan, Mary also got permission to remove the Elgin Marbles and even more artifacts for Elgin. Some people have speculated that it wasn’t just Mary’s charms that enabled her to obtain so many artifacts, and that the Ottoman Empire (which controlled Greece at the time) was actually engaging in a form of psychological warfare the Ottoman Empire (which controlled Greece at the time) was giving permission for so many antiquities to be removed as a way of reminding the Greeks who was in power by giving third-party foreigners – the British and the French – carte blanche to destroy their cultural heritage. This was an angle I had not considered before, and I found it interesting to speculate on how much the removal and/or destruction of so many other antiquities was prompted by similar motives (especially the recent demolition campaign by ISIS).

There was some interesting information included about the Elgin Marbles in particular and the Parthenon in general. One thing I didn’t realize was that the Parthenon had been a target for centuries. In the fourth century, the Visigoths sacked Athens before proceeding to Rome, and heavily damaged it. In the fifth century, a group of Christians gutted the east end to convert it into a church, and in the mid-1400’s invading Turks converted the church into a mosque. They used the remainder of the site as a powder magazine, and when a Venetian shell hit the magazine, most of the Acropolis exploded. A year later, the Danes got involved and started removing the heads from some of the metopes, and the structure sustained even more damage well before the Elgins got there. This turbulent history would suggest there might have been something to the arguments from Elgin’s supporters, who said the only way to preserve the marbles was to remove them from the site and send them to Britain.

I also didn’t realize that the Elgins’ activities were controversial almost from the moment they began. Several contemporaries were appalled at the extent of what the Elgins were taking. Nicholas Biddle (an American statesman and financier) was so disgusted that when a ship loaded with Greek marbles went down at sea, he wished Elgin would have gone down with it (the marbles were subsequently recovered by divers soon after the accident). Lord Byron denounced Elgin as a “vandal” and then published “The Curse of Minerva” in further protest. Other opponents not listed in the book included Sir John Newport (the Chancellor of the Exchequer of Ireland) who complained, "The Honourable Lord has taken advantage of the most unjustifiable means and has committed the most flagrant pillages,” and Edward Daniel Clarke, who witnessed the removal of some of the metopes, called it a “spoliation.” He added that “the form of the temple has sustained a greater injury than it had already experienced from the Venetian artillery." Indeed, the Parthenon was permanently damaged from their removal. On the other hand, Elgin believed he was rescuing the artwork from neglect and any further damage, and was providing a service to the world, especially artists and educators. Some of his contemporaries agreed that the only way to save the marbles was to send them to Britain. Parliament also came down on Elgin’s side, concluding that the marbles were deserving of “asylum” under a “free government.”

The book also gave some interesting insights into both British and Turkish societies, especially the way they treated women. Contrary to popular belief, the Ottoman Empire was in many respects less sexist than its British counterpart. “Turkish women often received quite better treatment than their European counterparts. They were entitled to inherit half of what any man could, and that created significant female-controlled wealth…Contrary to English law at the time, when a woman married her property did not automatically become her husband’s.” (page 109). In divorce cases, a Turkish woman retained custody of any daughters, while any sons went with the husband; under English law, the custody of all children automatically went to the husband I’m not sure how much Mary Nisbet knew about the Ottoman laws, but if she had that knowledge surely would have haunted her later in life.

The trouble began when, after a string of difficult pregnancies (all with surviving children), Mary decided she didn’t want to have any more children. However, Elgin wanted a dynasty, and the only son to survive to adulthood was sickly and suffered from seizures caused by mercury poisoning. All of the other children were daughters. The only forms of birth control at the time were dependent on male initiative, and the impasse led to a sexless marriage. It didn’t help that Mary was also involved in an affair with one of Elgin’s best friends (who had agreed to use birth control), and when Elgin found out he initiated what became an acrimonious high-profile divorce case. Ultimately, the divorce went through, and while Mary managed to keep her fortune (which was unusual for the time), she lost custody of all her children.

Britain did not start changing its laws until 1839, when the Custody of Infants Act was passed. This law gave women who were going to live apart from their husbands the right to apply for custody of their own children, as long as those children were under the age of seven. And it wasn’t until 1882 that the Married Women’s Property Law was passed (in the United States similar laws were enacted much earlier), which gave women legal authority over any property they had brought to the marriage.

Another thing I liked was the detailed “Chronology” section, which helped provide a broader historical context to the events of Mary Nisbet’s life; it includes not only political events but also artistic and literary events (e.g., Jane Austen was a contemporary and wrote and published both Pride and Prejudice and Sense and Sensibility during Mary’s lifetime, and the first public performance of Beethoven’s Eroica was also in the same time frame).

One final note: "Elgin" is pronounced with a hard "g". Good to know. ( )
  Jennifer708 | Mar 21, 2020 |
A little disappointing in that it was somewhat slanted in Mary's favor and didn't discuss the antiquities themselves as much as I had hoped. However, I learned a lot and am overall glad I read the book, so around a 3.5.

To start with, if it hadn’t been for the mention of the Elgin Marbles in the title, I probably wouldn’t have added this to my reading list or sought it out. Unfortunately, there wasn’t nearly as much about the Elgin Marbles themselves as I had hoped, although an appendix reproducing a letter to Mary Nisbet describing the progress of the Acropolis excavations was included. That doesn’t mean I didn’t like the book, and it does include some discussion of the Elgin Marbles, but if you’re more interested in art history go elsewhere.

Mary Nisbet started life as one of the richest heiresses in Scotland and married Thomas Bruce, the Seventh Earl of Elgin and Eleventh Earl of Kincardine. When Elgin was appointed ambassador extraordinaire to the Ottoman Empire, Mary accompanied him to Turkey. Along the way, they began collecting amazing antiquities, including the Gymnasiarch’s Throne (where the judge of the original Olympic games sat). While she was in Constantinople, the sultan became besotted with her, and she was the only Western women invited into Topkapi Palace and the Seraglio. She was also one of the few to meet the Valida Sultana, the sultan’s mother and the power behind the throne.

In addition, Mary helped introduce the smallpox vaccine to the Middle East. She lived at the same time Edward Jenner perfected the smallpox vaccine, and her mother-in-law knew Edward Jenner’s father. Because of this relationship, she was easily able to obtain the vaccine and had her young son and then her entire household vaccinated. This was important because smallpox was epidemic in Constantinople. Because smallpox was epidemic in Constantinople, she saw how many Turkish children in the city suffered and was so moved that she arranged to import large quantities of the vaccine to inoculate them as well. After early successes, she expanded her efforts and ultimately shipped smallpox vaccines to Baghdad, the Persian Gulf, and even Bombay.

On one of their few vacations, they visited Greece, where Elgin had already sent artists to make sketches of the art and plaster casts of the sculptures. On this trip, which took place before the recovery of the Elgin Marbles, he received permission to remove antiquities from Mycenae, Corinth, and Olympus. Using her influence with the sultan, Mary also got permission to remove the Elgin Marbles and even more artifacts for Elgin. Some people have speculated that it wasn’t just Mary’s charms that enabled her to obtain so many artifacts, and that the Ottoman Empire (which controlled Greece at the time) was actually engaging in a form of psychological warfare the Ottoman Empire (which controlled Greece at the time) was giving permission for so many antiquities to be removed as a way of reminding the Greeks who was in power by giving third-party foreigners – the British and the French – carte blanche to destroy their cultural heritage. This was an angle I had not considered before, and I found it interesting to speculate on how much the removal and/or destruction of so many other antiquities was prompted by similar motives (especially the recent demolition campaign by ISIS).

There was some interesting information included about the Elgin Marbles in particular and the Parthenon in general. One thing I didn’t realize was that the Parthenon had been a target for centuries. In the fourth century, the Visigoths sacked Athens before proceeding to Rome, and heavily damaged it. In the fifth century, a group of Christians gutted the east end to convert it into a church, and in the mid-1400’s invading Turks converted the church into a mosque. They used the remainder of the site as a powder magazine, and when a Venetian shell hit the magazine, most of the Acropolis exploded. A year later, the Danes got involved and started removing the heads from some of the metopes, and the structure sustained even more damage well before the Elgins got there. This turbulent history would suggest there might have been something to the arguments from Elgin’s supporters, who said the only way to preserve the marbles was to remove them from the site and send them to Britain.

I also didn’t realize that the Elgins’ activities were controversial almost from the moment they began. Several contemporaries were appalled at the extent of what the Elgins were taking. Nicholas Biddle (an American statesman and financier) was so disgusted that when a ship loaded with Greek marbles went down at sea, he wished Elgin would have gone down with it (the marbles were subsequently recovered by divers soon after the accident). Lord Byron denounced Elgin as a “vandal” and then published “The Curse of Minerva” in further protest. Other opponents not listed in the book included Sir John Newport (the Chancellor of the Exchequer of Ireland) who complained, "The Honourable Lord has taken advantage of the most unjustifiable means and has committed the most flagrant pillages,” and Edward Daniel Clarke, who witnessed the removal of some of the metopes, called it a “spoliation.” He added that “the form of the temple has sustained a greater injury than it had already experienced from the Venetian artillery." Indeed, the Parthenon was permanently damaged from their removal. On the other hand, Elgin believed he was rescuing the artwork from neglect and any further damage, and was providing a service to the world, especially artists and educators. Some of his contemporaries agreed that the only way to save the marbles was to send them to Britain. Parliament also came down on Elgin’s side, concluding that the marbles were deserving of “asylum” under a “free government.”

The book also gave some interesting insights into both British and Turkish societies, especially the way they treated women. Contrary to popular belief, the Ottoman Empire was in many respects less sexist than its British counterpart. “Turkish women often received quite better treatment than their European counterparts. They were entitled to inherit half of what any man could, and that created significant female-controlled wealth…Contrary to English law at the time, when a woman married her property did not automatically become her husband’s.” (page 109). In divorce cases, a Turkish woman retained custody of any daughters, while any sons went with the husband; under English law, the custody of all children automatically went to the husband I’m not sure how much Mary Nisbet knew about the Ottoman laws, but if she had that knowledge surely would have haunted her later in life.

The trouble began when, after a string of difficult pregnancies (all with surviving children), Mary decided she didn’t want to have any more children. However, Elgin wanted a dynasty, and the only son to survive to adulthood was sickly and suffered from seizures caused by mercury poisoning. All of the other children were daughters. The only forms of birth control at the time were dependent on male initiative, and the impasse led to a sexless marriage. It didn’t help that Mary was also involved in an affair with one of Elgin’s best friends (who had agreed to use birth control), and when Elgin found out he initiated what became an acrimonious high-profile divorce case. Ultimately, the divorce went through, and while Mary managed to keep her fortune (which was unusual for the time), she lost custody of all her children.

Britain did not start changing its laws until 1839, when the Custody of Infants Act was passed. This law gave women who were going to live apart from their husbands the right to apply for custody of their own children, as long as those children were under the age of seven. And it wasn’t until 1882 that the Married Women’s Property Law was passed (in the United States similar laws were enacted much earlier), which gave women legal authority over any property they had brought to the marriage.

Another thing I liked was the detailed “Chronology” section, which helped provide a broader historical context to the events of Mary Nisbet’s life; it includes not only political events but also artistic and literary events (e.g., Jane Austen was a contemporary and wrote and published both Pride and Prejudice and Sense and Sensibility during Mary’s lifetime, and the first public performance of Beethoven’s Eroica was also in the same time frame).

One final note: "Elgin" is pronounced with a hard "g". Good to know. ( )
  Jennifer708 | Mar 21, 2020 |
Mary Nesbit was the richest heiress in Scotland when she married Lord Elgin at age 21. He, in turn, had just been posted as ambassador to Istanbul – a highly sensitive diplomatic position during the Napoleonic wars. His beautiful young wife charmed the Ottomans, becoming the first European woman to visit the Sultan’s harem, and the first to actually see the Sultan in audience (although she had to do that disguised as a boy). Her husband, in addition to his diplomatic duties, was an antiquary, and in his spare time sent agents around the area to pick up old stuff that looked interesting. This included the marble frieze decorating the Parthenon. Mary was invaluable here as well, she was the one who actually organized the collection, packing, and shipment of the Elgin Marbles – in the last effort, she charmed a succession of Royal Navy captains who agreed to transport the marbles back to England on their warships, despite a specific prohibition against private cargo by Lord Nelson.


With the Peace of Amiens, Lord and Lady Elgin headed back to England overland, four children in tow, and going by way of France. They were there when war broke out again, and Lord Elgin was interned as a valuable hostage. This is where their life started to fall apart. Lady Elgin stayed in Paris and worked “behind the scenes” to get Elgin released; given her past history of success in areas like this, it was certainly a good idea. Lord Elgin, confined in a series of varyingly hospitable French prisons, wanted his wife by his side – despite her pregnancy. Each began to have suspicions of the other – and in Lord Elgin’s case, those suspicions may have been justified, as Mary was supported in her endeavors by Robert Ferguson, an Englishman who had exiled himself to Paris because of his political views. When the Elgin’s finally got back to England, Mary’s final pregnancy was so difficult that she demanded a separate accommodation from Lord Elgin; Elgin, in turn, began opening Mary’s letters and found an exchange of incriminating correspondence between her and Ferguson (also now back in England, and a Member of Parliament). The divorce proceedings were the scandal of the day, with the prosecution at one point calling a former servant who said he had once seen Lady Elgin and Robert Ferguson sitting together and Lady Elgin’s petticoats were around her waist. Thankfully, modern politicians are never guilty of such offenses to morality.


At any rate, the divorce went through, Mary lost custody of her children but married Robert, and Lord Elgin found a more complaisant second wife and sired eight more children. Author Susan Nagle, although more sympathetic to Mary, is relatively even-handed; it was obviously not fun for Elgin to be in a French prison, especially with the French continuously trying to plant evidence incriminating him as a spy, and while Mary did work with various French diplomats for her husband’s release, she also obviously enjoyed the social life of Paris; thus this is not a feminist diatribe against the inequalities of 19th century English divorce laws. Although everybody’s heard of the Elgin Marbles, I never realized that Lady Elgin was a lot more involved in their acquisition than Lord Elgin, so it was informative. I was also amused to find that the mineral fergusonite, a well-known constituent of several rare-earth ores, is named after Robert Ferguson, who was apparently an accomplished amateur geologist when not attending parliament or Mary. The book does taper off a little abruptly; Mary Nisbet Ferguson lived to her seventies, but her post-Elgin life only occupies one short chapter; I suppose it wasn’t as interesting as her first thirty years, at least in the Chinese sense of “interesting”,br>

There's an interesting connection to modern pseudoscience. Mary kept a copious diary in which she detailed, among other things, the various medical ailments and remedies of her family. The Elgins dosed themselves, and were dosed by doctors, with so much mercury that Lord Elgin’s nose fell off. (One of the suggestions made at the divorce trial was that this was due to syphilis and not mercury poisoning, but neither Lord Elgin, Mary, or any of the children displayed any other evidence of syphilis, and chronic heavy mercury use does apparently cause various kinds of skin ulcers. Elgin’s nose was amputated to prevent a particularly unpleasant ulcer from spreading). Mary’s letters to home from Paris are full of admonitions to her nannies to make sure her children took their mercury – mixed with honey or sugar to make it more palatable. And as a result, did the Elgin family develop all the horrible things that happen to you when you look at a fluorescent lamp sideways or get vaccinated? Not as far as I can tell, other than the Lord’s unfortunate nose; none of the family seems to be any more mentally deranged than the rest of the British nobility of the time.


An interesting book about an interesting person and an interesting time. Let’s say four stars. ( )
  setnahkt | Dec 15, 2017 |
While the story was engaging, the only person who came off as a real, well-rounded person is Mary. All others seemed shallow versions of stock characters.
  tmscott13 | Jan 23, 2016 |
Mary Nisbet led quite a fascinating life in the late 1700s and 1800s. One of the wealthiest women in Scotland and heir to an even larger fortune, at a young age she married Lord Elgin, aristocratic but debt-ridden diplomat who counted on his wife's money to finance his interest in antiquities. The young couple seemed very much in love in the early years of marriage, but Elgin's frequent travels (both diplomatic and personal) and Mary's frequent pregnancies (which prohibited her from accompanying her husband) later got in the way. Mary did, however, join him in Turkey, Egypt, and Athens, where she thoroughly charmed sultans and pashas. She was the first Eurpoean woman invited to visit the Turkish sultan's seraglio, and she even attended court disguised as a man--with his permission. And indeed, it was Mary's money that paid for most of the expenses of transporting the famous Elgin marbles back to London.

The Elgins were travelling during the Napoleonic wars when Mary again became pregnant, this time with their fourth child. She decided to stay in Paris to await the birth, but Elgin continued his travels--in the course of which he was taken hostage by Napoleon's forces and imprisoned in a remote Swiss village. Elgin said repeated demands that Mary join him there, along with demands for luxury items that Mary tried to secure and send. She continued to work at negotiating his release but refused to take on the perilous journey in her pregnant state. Elgin became convinced that she had abandoned him and was enjoying the social whirl of Paris. These quarrels were the beginning of the end of their marriage.

Mary gave birth to a second son, William, who was the closest to her of all her children. An early advocate of smallpox vaccinations, she had helped to bring the practice to many of the foreign countries in which Elgin served. Because smallpox vaccinations were not mandatory in France, she decided to nurse William (unusual for noblewomen at the time) rather than risking the use of a wet nurse. Still working to secure her husband's release, Mary was assisted by his good friend, Robert Ferguson, who adored both Mary and her children. Sadly, William died suddenly before his father ever met him; Mary mourned alone, with Ferguson at her side.

Elgin's selfishness, anger, and jealousy increased, but once he was released, the couple attempted to save their marriage. Mary became pregnant for a fifth time, and her health was so damaged after the birth that she begged her husband to promist that there would be no more children. Elgin, having lost his second son and needing more than one to secure his titles, refused, and when Mary moved into a separate household, he began divorce proceedings. It didn't help that at about this time, Elgin discovered a letter from Ferguson to his wife that revealed how close they had become (which was VERY close but apparently not yet adulterous). The proceedings scandalized London at the time. Elgin was granted the divorce and sole custody of the children, who were not allowed even to see their mother, but his efforts to gain control over her remaining fortune failed. Still, Mary was, for a time, a social pariah. She married Ferguson and moved north to Scotland, where she lived a relatively happy life, supported by friends and family.

Nagel's biography was, for the most part, a fascinating depiction of the life of English aristocrats and diplomats and their wives in both home society and abroad. She includes many excerpts from letters and journals written by those involved, and these add much color to the story. The final four or five chapters sped by with much less detail and at times seemed like a list of dates and events--with the exceptions of Mary's reunions with her son Bruce and her three daughters. Recommended for those interested in the lives of women in this time period. ( )
3 stem Cariola | Dec 17, 2014 |
Viser 1-5 af 10 (næste | vis alle)
ingen anmeldelser | tilføj en anmeldelse
Du bliver nødt til at logge ind for at redigere data i Almen Viden.
For mere hjælp se Almen Viden hjælpesiden.
Kanonisk titel
Originaltitel
Alternative titler
Oprindelig udgivelsesdato
Personer/Figurer
Oplysninger fra den engelske Almen Viden Redigér teksten, så den bliver dansk.
Vigtige steder
Oplysninger fra den engelske Almen Viden Redigér teksten, så den bliver dansk.
Vigtige begivenheder
Beslægtede film
Priser og hædersbevisninger
Indskrift
Tilegnelse
Første ord
Citater
Sidste ord
Oplysning om flertydighed
Forlagets redaktører
Bagsidecitater
Originalsprog
Canonical DDC/MDS
Canonical LCC

Henvisninger til dette værk andre steder.

Wikipedia på engelsk (1)

Filled with romance, danger, and scandal, Mistress of the Elgin Marbles is the intriguing story of Mary Nisbet, the Countess of Elgin -- one of the most influential women of the Romantic era whose exploits enriched world culture immeasurably. The richest heiress in Scotland and the wife of accomplished diplomat Thomas Bruce, the 7th Earl of Elgin, she traveled to Turkey when Elgin was appointed the Ambassador Extraordinaire to the Ottoman Empire -- a journey that would change history. Interweaving extensive details gleaned from primary sources and excerpts from the countess's own letters, Susan Nagel draws a vivid portrait of this formidable woman who helped bring the smallpox vaccine to the Middle East, financed the removal and safe passage to England of classical marbles from the Parthenon, and struck a deal with Napoleon that no politician could have accomplished. Yet, as Nagel shows, those achievements were overshadowed by scandal when Mary's passionate affair with her husband's best friend flamed into the most lurid and salacious divorce trial in London's history. Lively and informative, this is an engrossing story of an astonishing woman who both defined and shaped an era.

No library descriptions found.

Beskrivelse af bogen
Haiku-resume

Populære omslag

Quick Links

Vurdering

Gennemsnit: (3.59)
0.5
1
1.5
2 3
2.5
3 10
3.5 3
4 13
4.5 3
5 2

Er det dig?

Bliv LibraryThing-forfatter.

 

Om | Kontakt | LibraryThing.com | Brugerbetingelser/Håndtering af brugeroplysninger | Hjælp/FAQs | Blog | Butik | APIs | TinyCat | Efterladte biblioteker | Tidlige Anmeldere | Almen Viden | 164,403,977 bøger! | Topbjælke: Altid synlig