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Thinking, Fast and Slow af Daniel Kahneman
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Thinking, Fast and Slow (original 2011; udgave 2013)

af Daniel Kahneman (Forfatter)

MedlemmerAnmeldelserPopularitetGennemsnitlig vurderingOmtaler
12,025231541 (4.12)182
In this work the author, a recipient of the Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences for his seminal work in psychology that challenged the rational model of judgment and decision making, has brought together his many years of research and thinking in one book. He explains the two systems that drive the way we think. System 1 is fast, intuitive, and emotional; System 2 is slower, more deliberative, and more logical. He exposes the extraordinary capabilities, and also the faults and biases, of fast thinking, and reveals the pervasive influence of intuitive impressions on our thoughts and behavior. He reveals where we can and cannot trust our intuitions and how we can tap into the benefits of slow thinking. He offers practical and enlightening insights into how choices are made in both our business and our personal lives, and how we can use different techniques to guard against the mental glitches that often get us into trouble. This author's work has transformed cognitive psychology and launched the new fields of behavioral economics and happiness studies. In this book, he takes us on a tour of the mind and explains the two systems that drive the way we think and the way we make choices.… (mere)
Medlem:booktsunami
Titel:Thinking, Fast and Slow
Forfattere:Daniel Kahneman (Forfatter)
Info:Farrar, Straus and Giroux (2013), Edition: First Edition, 512 pages
Samlinger:Blinkist summary, Dit bibliotek, Kindle, Lloyd's Reviews
Vurdering:****
Nøgleord:Thought, Psychology, Blinkist

Værk information

At tænke - hurtigt og langsomt af Daniel Kahneman (Author) (2011)

Nyligt tilføjet afgabrielrondelli, sgfulton, privat bibliotek, WISCIENCE, mlimke, megabeast_2_0_sell, LaPhenix
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Viser 1-5 af 229 (næste | vis alle)
Brimming with fantastic information and fascinating ideas that are applicable to everyday life! This book made me reconsider information I take for granted and reevaluate perspective in general. ( )
  LaPhenix | Jul 8, 2024 |
This is probably the longest I took to read a book. Finally finished it. Kahneman is a great thinker, and this book has shown me a lot about human psychology that it's both contemplative in the sense that it engages me to think about humankind as a whole and also applicative since I can definitely apply a lot of what I learned in my life.

Kahnemann talks about the duality of minds and selves in each of us. There are system 1 and 2, remembering self and experiencing self. System 1 is in control of intuition. It helps us survives by thinking on our feet, makes quick judgement. It also makes a lot of errors. System 2, on the other hand, is slower, logical, reasonable, but requires much more effort to use. Kahnmann explains the error of system 1 and it turns out we as human make a lot of mistakes. For example, if we see a lot of car crashes on TV recently, we will tend to overweight the probability of getting into car crashes. Kahneman gave a lot of examples on the heuristics, such as narrow framing, anchoring, etc.

The remembering self vs the experiencing self is also another very interesting concept. It states that we usually rates an experience, not by the experience itself, but by our memories of it. If you think about a vacation recently, you will think more about the highlight of the vacation, not the 10 hours drive or stuck in traffic. You will definitely takes into consideration extreme memories, but not the experience or the duration.

Kahneman explains everything he wrote in this book in a very concise way. My impression at first is that nothing he said is excess. However, after going through half the book, after some concepts were connected for me, I found some chapters are just giving examples, or ideas derived from those concepts. I would recommend this book to anyone. This is a great read for everyone. The more we learned about the human mind, the more we felt that we are the most irrational beings. Inconsistency is inherent when it comes to human ( )
  heolinhdam | Jun 25, 2024 |
This is really a review of the Blinkist summary of "Thinking Fast and Slow". Therefore it's a summary of a summary.. And I find myself, fairly consistently rating the books I've read via the Blinkist version fairly low in terms of "stars". So I'm starting to think that maybe I'm missing a lot by not reading the original. And I have a copy of the original so I will try and read it to make the comparison. The essence of the book is that behavior is determined by two systems: automatic and considered.
System 1 is the part of our brain that operates intuitively and suddenly, often without our conscious control. You can experience this system at work when you hear a very loud and unexpected sound. This system is a legacy of our evolutionary past: there are inherent survival advantages in being able to make such rapid actions and judgments.
System 2 is what we think of when we visualize the part of the brain responsible for our individual decision-making, reasoning and beliefs. It deals with conscious activities of the mind such as self-control, choices and more deliberate focus of attention. The relationship between these two systems determines how we behave.
And, the authors point out that: "The lazy mind can lead to errors and affect our intelligence. Usually, when faced with a situation it can’t comprehend, System 1 calls on System 2 to work out the problem, but in the bat-and-ball problem, System 1 is tricked. It perceives the problem as simpler than it is, and incorrectly assumes it can handle it on its own.....When we use our brain, we tend to use the minimum amount of energy possible for each task. This is known as the law of least effort.
This laziness is unfortunate, because using System 2 is an important aspect of our intelligence. Research shows that practicing System-2 tasks, like focus and self-control, lead to higher intelligence scores.
But frequently we are on Autopilot: why we are not always in conscious control of our thoughts and actions......What do you think when you see the word fragment “SO_P”? Probably nothing. What if you first consider the word “EAT”? Now, when you look again at the word “SO_P,” you would probably complete it as “SOUP.” This process is known as priming. Such priming not only affects the way we think but also the way we act. Just as the mind is affected by hearing certain words and concepts, the body can be affected as well. A great example of this can be found in a study in which participants primed with words associated with being elderly, such as “Florida” and “wrinkle,” responded by walking at a slower pace than usual. Incredibly, the priming of actions and thoughts is completely unconscious; we do it without realizing.
One implication of Vohs’s research is that living in a society filled with triggers that prime money could nudge our behavior away from altruism.
Priming, just like other societal elements, can influence an individual's thoughts and therefore choices, judgment and behavior–and these reflect back into the culture and heavily affect the kind of society we all live in.
Snap judgments: quick choices, even if mind lacks information for rational decision..Our mind’s tendency to oversimplify things without sufficient information often leads to judgment errors. This is called exaggerated emotional coherence, also known as the halo effect: positive ..feelings about Ben’s approachability cause you to place a halo on Ben, even though you know very little about him......There is also confirmation bias, which is the tendency for people to agree with information that supports their previously held beliefs, as well as to accept whatever information is suggested to them.....The halo effect and confirmation bias both occur because our minds are eager to make quick judgments. But this often leads to mistakes,....Like priming, these cognitive phenomena happen without our conscious awareness and affect our choices, judgments and actions.
“A reliable way to make people believe in falsehoods is frequent repetition, because familiarity is not easily distinguished from truth.” [Adolph Hitler presumably knew this because he wrote about it in Mein Kampf and Donald Trump is putting it into action today...and presumably read Hitler's work because he reputedly had a copy alongside his bed. Scary stuff].
Heuristics: how the mind uses shortcuts to make quick decisions.......The substitution heuristic is where we answer an easier question than the one that was actually posed. This heuristic means that instead of researching the candidate’s background and policies, we merely ask ourselves the far easier question of whether this woman matches our mental image of a good sheriff........Next, there is the availability heuristic, which is where you overestimate the probability of something you hear often or find easy to remember.....We remember horrific accidental deaths more readily than deaths from strokes, and so we may react inappropriately to these dangers.
No head for numbers: struggle to understand statistics and make avoidable mistakes.......We should therefore always remember the base rate when predicting an event, but unfortunately this doesn’t happen. In fact, base-rate neglect is extremely common.....If you were to see five red cabs pass by, you’d probably start to feel it’s quite likely that the next one will be yellow for a change. But no matter how many cabs of either color go by, the probability that the next cab will be red will still be around 80 percent–and if we remember the base rate we should realize this. But instead we tend to focus on what we expect to see, a yellow cab, and so we will likely be wrong......We also struggle to remember that everything regresses to the mean. This is the acknowledgment that all situations have their average status, and variations from that average will eventually tilt back toward the average.
Past imperfect: why we remember events from hindsight rather than from experience.....Our minds don’t remember experiences in a straightforward way. We have two different apparatuses, called memory selves, both of which remember situations differently......First, there is the experiencing self, which records how we feel in the present moment. It asks the question: “How does it feel now?”.....Then there is the remembering self, which records how the entire event unfolded after the fact. It asks, “How was it on the whole?”
There are two reasons why the remembering self dominates the experiencing self. The first of these is called duration neglect, where we ignore the total duration of the event in favor of a particular memory from it. Second is the peak-end rule, where we overemphasize what occurs at the end of an event......For an example of this dominance of the remembering self, take this experiment, which measured people’s memories of a painful colonoscopy examination.....after the experience, when the remembering self took over, those who went through the shorter process with the more painful ending felt the worst. This survey offers us a clear example of duration neglect, the peak-end rule, and our faulty memories.
Mind over matter: adjusting mind’s focus dramatically affects thoughts/behaviors. When our brain is In a state of cognitive ease, the intuitive System 1 is in charge of our minds, and the logical and more energy-demanding System 2 is weakened. This means we are more intuitive, creative and happier, yet we’re also more likely to make mistakes.......In contrast, in a state of cognitive strain, our awareness is more heightened, and so System 2 is put in charge. System 2 is more ready to double-check our judgments than System 1, so although we are far less creative, we will make fewer mistakes.
If you want a message to be persuasive, try promoting cognitive ease......One way to do this is to expose ourselves to repetitive information. If information is repeated to us, or made more memorable, it becomes more persuasive. This is because our minds have evolved to react positively when repeatedly exposed to the same clear messages. When we see something familiar, we enter a state of cognitive ease.
Cognitive strain, on the other hand, helps us succeed at things like statistical problems.....We can get into this state by exposing ourselves to information that is presented to us in a confusing way, for example, via hard-to-read type.
Taking chances: the way probabilities are presented to us affects our judgment of risk. People will consider a rare event as more likely to occur if it’s expressed in terms of relative frequency rather than as a statistical probability.
In what’s known as the Mr. Jones experiment, two groups of psychiatric professionals were asked if it was safe to discharge Mr. Jones from the psychiatric hospital. The first group were told that patients like Mr. Jones had a “10 percent probability of committing an act of violence,” and the second group were told that “of every 100 patients similar to Mr. Jones, 10 are estimated to commit an act of violence.” Of the two groups, almost twice as many respondents in the second group denied his discharge.
Another way our attention is distracted from what is statistically relevant is called denominator neglect. This occurs when we ignore plain statistics in favor of vivid mental images that influence our decisions.
Even though both statements are equal, the latter statement brings to mind a disfigured child and is much more influential, which is why it would make us less likely to administer the drug.
We are not robots: why we don't make choices based purely on rational thinking....Utility theory would posit this kind of statement: if you like oranges more than you like kiwis, then you’re also going to take a 10 percent chance of winning an orange over a 10 percent chance of winning a kiwi.....Using utility theory, the Chicago School argued that individuals in the marketplace are ultra-rational decision-makers, whom economist Richard Thaler and lawyer Cass Sunstein later named Econs.....As Econs, each individual acts in the same way, valuing goods and services based on their rational needs. What’s more, Econs also value their wealth rationally, weighing only how much utility it provides them.
since we don’t all see utility as rationally as utility theory thinks, we can make strange and seemingly irrational decisions.
Gut feeling: why rather than making decisions based solely on rational considerations, we are often swayed by emotional factors. If utility theory doesn’t work, then what does? Kahneman’s prospect theory challenges utility theory by showing that when we make choices, we don’t always act in the most rational way.....Prospect theory helps to explain why this is the case. It highlights at least two reasons why we don’t always act rationally. Both of them feature our loss aversion—the fact that we fear losses more than we value gains.
The first reason is that we value things based on reference points. Starting with $ 1,000 or $ 2,000 in the two scenarios changes whether we’re willing to gamble, because the starting point affects how we value our position. The reference point in the first scenario is $ 1,000 and $ 2,000 in the second, which means ending up at $ 1,500 feels like a win in the first, but a distasteful loss in the second.
Second, we’re influenced by the diminishing sensitivity principle: the value we perceive may be different from its actual worth. For instance, going from $ 1,000 to $ 900 doesn’t feel as bad as going from $ 200 to $ 100, despite the monetary value of both losses being equal.
False images: why the mind builds complete pictures to explain the world, but they lead to overconfidence and mistakes.....In order to understand situations, our minds naturally use cognitive coherence; we construct complete mental pictures to explain ideas and concepts.
well as helping us to understand things, we also rely on these images when making a decision. When we make decisions, we refer to these pictures and build our assumptions and conclusions based on them. For example, if we want to know what clothes to wear in summer, we base our decisions on our image of that season’s weather....In summer, the weather forecaster might predict relatively cool weather, yet you might still go out in shorts and a T-shirt, as that’s what your mental image of summer tells you to wear.
We are, in short, massively overconfident of our often faulty mental images. But there are ways to overcome this overconfidence and start making better predictions.
Through preparation and protection, you can rely on evidence instead of general mental pictures and make more accurate forecasts.
Final summary
Thinking, Fast and Slow shows us that our minds contain two systems. The first acts instinctively and requires little effort; the second is more deliberate and requires much more of our attention. Our thoughts and actions vary depending on which of the two systems is in control of our brain at the time.
Actionable advice Repeat the message! Messages are more persuasive when we’re repeatedly exposed to them. This is probably because we evolved in a way that made repeated exposure to things that had no bad consequences seem inherently good.
Don’t be influenced by rare statistical events that are over-reported in newspapers....You’re more creative and intuitive when you’re in a better mood.....When you’re in a better mood, the part of the mind that is alert and analytical tends to relax. That cedes control of your mind to the more intuitive and quicker thinking system, which also makes you more creative.

I guess the I knew most of this though not the facts about the memory selves (remembering the most dramatic part of an event and neglecting other elements of it). But it certainly reinforced a lot of concepts. Though I find myself wondering if the fast and slow mechanisms is just a little to "glib" Yes peristalsis is presumably under the control of the autonomous systems in the brain and not subject at all to conscious interference (though maybe some yogis manage this sort of thing). But my experience with biological phenomena is that very rarely do we find Black and white examples like this and there are multiple instances where factors overlap. In other words I wonder if there are situations (probably most situations where both mechanisms come into play). The book (at least the summary) doesn't deal with the amygdala's role in the brain in "decision making". Even with the example they give of the price of bat and ball I found myself flicking between rapid decision and a slower decision and giving up on th slower decision because it was going to take more time...even though I knew that there was going to be a trick involved. I would be interested to see what well informed critics think of the ideas.
Anyway four stars from me. ( )
  booktsunami | Jun 18, 2024 |
This book is amazing and I recommend it to everyone. It is about how we think and make decisions. It explains the contributions of the conscious and unconscious parts of our minds in terms that are understandable. And thus, it explains how it is that although we think we are, in fact, we are not and cannot be truly rational. Brilliant! ( )
  dvoratreis | May 22, 2024 |
A good & important book, but not a quick read. 3-1/2 stars ( )
  Abcdarian | May 18, 2024 |
Viser 1-5 af 229 (næste | vis alle)
The replication crisis in psychology does not extend to every line of inquiry, and just a portion of the work described in Thinking, Fast and Slow has been cast in shadows. Kahneman and Tversky’s own research, for example, turns out to be resilient. Large-scale efforts to recreate their classic findings have so far been successful. One bias they discovered—people’s tendency to overvalue the first piece of information that they get, in what is known as the “anchoring effect”—not only passed a replication test, but turned out to be much stronger than Kahneman and Tversky thought.

Still, entire chapters of Kahneman’s book may need to be rewritten.
tilføjet af elenchus | RedigerSlate.com, Daniel Engber (Dec 1, 2016)
 
"It is an astonishingly rich book: lucid, profound, full of intellectual surprises and self-help value. It is consistently entertaining and frequently touching..."
tilføjet af melmore | RedigerNew York Times, Jim Holt (Nov 25, 2011)
 
Thinking, Fast and Slow is nonetheless rife with lessons on how to overcome bias in daily life.
tilføjet af mercure | RedigerBusinessweek, Roger Lowenstein (Oct 27, 2011)
 

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extreme outcomes (both high and low) are more likely to be found in small than in large samples. This explanation is not causal. The small population of a county neither causes nor prevents cancer; it merely allows the incidence of cancer to be much higher (or much lower) than it is in the larger population. The deeper truth is that there is nothing to explain. The incidence of cancer is not truly lower or higher than normal in a county with a small population, it just appears to be so in a particular year because of an accident of sampling. If we repeat the analysis next year, we will observe the same general pattern of extreme results in the small samples, but the counties where cancer was common last year will not necessarily have a high incidence this year. If this is the case, the differences between dense and rural counties do not really count as facts: they are what scientists call artifacts, observations that are produced entirely by some aspect of the method of research - in this case, by differences in sample size. p 111
Even now, you must exert some mental effort to see that the following two statements mean exactly the same thing: Large samples are more precise than small samples. Small samples yield extreme results more often than large samples do. p 111
When experts and the public disagree on their priorities, [Paul Slovic] says, 'Each side must respect the insights and intelligence of the other.' p 140
You can also take precautions that will inoculate you against regret. Perhaps the most useful is to b explicit about the anticipation of regret. If you can remember when things go badly that you considered the possibility of regret carefully before deciding, you are likely to experience less of it. You should also know that regret and hindsight bias will come together, so anything you can do to preclude hindsight is likely to be helpful. My personal hindsight-avoiding policy is to be either very thorough or completely casual when making a decision with long-term consequences. Hindsight is worse when you think a little, just enough to tell yourself later, 'I almost made a better choice.'     Daniel Gilbert and his colleagues provocatively claim that people generally anticipate more regret than they will actually experience, because they underestimate the efficacy of the psychological defenses they will deploy - which they label the 'psychological immune system.' Their recommendation is that you should not put too much weight on regret; even if you have some, it will hurt less than you now think.p 352
Unless there is an obvious reason to do otherwise, most of us passively accept decision problems as they are framed and therefore rarely have an opportunity to discover the extent to which our preferences are frame-bound rather than reality-bound. p 367
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In this work the author, a recipient of the Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences for his seminal work in psychology that challenged the rational model of judgment and decision making, has brought together his many years of research and thinking in one book. He explains the two systems that drive the way we think. System 1 is fast, intuitive, and emotional; System 2 is slower, more deliberative, and more logical. He exposes the extraordinary capabilities, and also the faults and biases, of fast thinking, and reveals the pervasive influence of intuitive impressions on our thoughts and behavior. He reveals where we can and cannot trust our intuitions and how we can tap into the benefits of slow thinking. He offers practical and enlightening insights into how choices are made in both our business and our personal lives, and how we can use different techniques to guard against the mental glitches that often get us into trouble. This author's work has transformed cognitive psychology and launched the new fields of behavioral economics and happiness studies. In this book, he takes us on a tour of the mind and explains the two systems that drive the way we think and the way we make choices.

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